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دریچه ریوی جریان خون را بین بطن راست و سرخرگ ریوی کنترل می‌کند. سرخرگ ریوی برای گرفتن اکسیژن، خون را به ریه‌ها می‌فرستد. گرچه بیماری‌های دریچه ریوی بسیار نادر می‌باشند، ولی ممکن است دریچه ریوی مبتلا به نارسایی و تنگی شود.

تنگی دریچه ریوی معمولا به صورت یک ضایعه مادرزادی منفرد روی می دهد. در این بیماری اضافه بار فشاری ناشی از تنگی به هیپرتروفی بطن راست منجر می شود و بعضی بیماران دچار هیپرتروفی انفاندیبولوم در زیر دریچه ریوی می شوند.

بروز علائم بستگی به شدت تنگی و عملکرد بطن راست دارد. بیماران دارای تنگی خفیف تا متوسط بدون علامت هستند اما مبتلایان به تنگی شدید اغلب با خستگی پیشرونده و تنگی نفس تظاهر می یابند. اگر اختلال عملکرد بطن راست رخ دهد ممکن علائم و نشانه های نارسایی سمت راست قلب یافت شوند.
نکته: مگر در موارد وجود تنگی شدید در هنگام تولد اکثر مبتلایان تا نوجوانی یا جوانی زندگی طبیعی دارند.

تنگی دریچه پولمونر یا به اصطلاح تنگی دریچه ریوی اغلب منشأ مادرزادی دارد. تغییرات روماتیسمی دریچه ریوی نادراند و معمولاً با انسداد همودینامیک مهمی همراه نیستند .

علائم تنگی دریچه ریوی نوزادان معمولاً مربوط به بیماری زمینه ای و در اغلب موارد ثانوی به نارسایی بطن راست هستند در این موارد ، سوفل نارسایی دریچه ریوی معمولاً سوفل زیر و وزنده ای است که در دومین فضای بین دنده ای چپ بهتر شنیده می شود ( سوفل گراهام استیل ) . چنانچه تنگی دریچه ریوی وجود نداشته باشد . سوفل معمولاً بم است و در اواخر زمینه ای عامل ایجاد فشارخون ریوی بالا است .

به طور نادر و معمولاً تنها در صورت مادرزادی بودن نارسایی یا بیماری دریچه ای به صورت ترمیم فعلی دریچه پلمونری به علت بروز نارسایی مقاوم به درمان قلب راست شدید ، دریچه ها نیاز به تعویض دارند .

آشنایی با تنگی شریان ریوی قلب (کلیک کنید)

منبع: ویکی پی جی. اتاق عمل

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