آترواسکلروز (تصلب شرایین)


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آترواسکلروز (تصلب شرایین) شایعترین علت بیماری قلبی است که یک حالت تجمع غیرطبیعی لیپید، مواد و بافت فیبروزی روی پوشش داخلی دیواره عروق خونی شریانی می باشد که سبب انسداد و تنگی عروق کرونری شده، به طوری که جریان خون به میوکارد کاهش می یابد.

علت تصلب شرایین (آترواسکلروز)

آسیب دیواره عروق با سیگار و هیپرتانسیون شروع می شود فاکتورهای ژنتیکی و محیطی نیز در پیشرفت آن دخالت دارد. ترومبوز تشکیل شده در آترواسکلروز سبب تأمین ناکافی خون می شود و سلولهای عضلانی از اکسیژن محروم می شوند.

عوامل خطرساز اصلی در بیماری قلبی افزایش سطح چربی بدن (ایجاد آترواسکلروزیس)، استعمال دخانیات، هیپرتانسیون، دیابت ملیتوس ، چاقی، سن، و سابقه خانوادگی بیماری قلبی و عروقی می باشد. عدم تحرک و فعالیت بدنی نیز در تصلب شرایین نقش مهمی دارد و ورزش یکی از روشهای پیشگیری و درمان تصلب شرایین می باشد.
یک دسته از اختلالات متابولیک به نام سندرم متابولیک سبب افزایش چربی و در نتیجه آترواسکلروزیس می شود: مقاومت به انسولین، اختلال چربی خون، هیپرتانسیون و التهاب مزمن.

عوارض تصلب شرایین (آترواسکلروز)

ایسکمی، آنژین صدری و اگر کاهش در تأمین خون زیاد باشد، آسیب غیرقابل برگشت و انفارکتوس میوکارد (MI) ایجاد می شود. آسیب غیرقابل بازگشت سبب اختلال عملکرد میوکارد و منجر به کاهش برون ده قلبی و در نهایت نارسایی قلبی می شود. حتی ممکن است منجر به مرگ ناگهانی قلبی شود.

علائم تصلب شرایین (آترواسکلروز)

درد قفسه سینه، تنگی نفس، یک حادثه قلبی مهم است وممکن است اولین نشانه آترواسکلروز شریان کرونری باشد.

منبع: فایل پرستاری داخلی جراحی قلب و عروق

۲۶ دیدگاه

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